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In principle, all material which is used for teaching at Halmstad University is protected by copyright. The same regulations are in force for material which students and teachers copy from the internet. There are a number of regulations in the Copyright Act (SFS 1960:729, amended SFS 2005:360) which regulate how one may make use of copyright-protected material. Works which are protected by copyright law include for example paintings, pictures, sketches, photographs, music, sheet music, newspaper articles, texts, books, computer programmes and databases. Copyright law is the legal right of the original creator of the work. Without copyright laws it would be difficult if not impossible for example for the person who has written an article or book or created a musical work or file to sell and distribute their work.

It should be noted that it can be very costly to make copies of copyright-protected material contrary to the copyright legislation. It is therefore important as an employee or student at the University that you are aware of what rules are in operation. Link to regulations.

Private use

Copyright law has certain restrictions. The most important aspect in this context is the rule that anyone may make individual copies of public works for private use. With regards to literary works, such as a textbook, the rule however is that one may only copy a limited portion of the book. Exactly what is meant by a restricted amount has not been clearly set out. It should however always involve a lesser part of the work and not so much as half or almost half of the work. It is not permitted either to attempt to circumvent the rules by copying part of the book one day and another part another day.

Note also that one may not copy a whole book for personal use.

In the following cases, there is no exception from the copyright law eg not even copying for private use is permitted: technical drawings and plans relating to the construction of building works, the production of computer programmes and compilations in digital form (eg CD-ROM).

Citation law

In accordance with a regulation in the Copyright law each individual may make use of citations / quotations from public works in good faith and to the extent justified by the purpose. When a text is ‘borrowed´ in accordance with the agreement, the individual must state the original source of the citation. Citation law extends differently from case to case. In an academic, scientific or other critical presentation, where the author has the intention of analysing, criticizing or illustrating a cited work, one has the right in certain cases to reproduce quite extensive proportions of the original work. Shorter poems can also be reproduced in their entirety in this context.

Certain public documents

Statutes, decisions made by public authorities, statements etc made by Swedish authorities and official translations of stated works are not covered by copyright law.

Material with copyright within the University

As mentioned above, the majority of material which is used for teaching purposes is protected by copyright. The copyright law does not differentiate between different types of teaching materials. Expensive course textbooks as well as simpler works such as compendia written by a lecturer are protected. Lectures which are given within the University are also covered by copyright. The student does of course have the right to make notes on what the lecturer says during the course of a lecture. Students may also use the material for their own purposes. However students do not have the right to copy and disseminate lectures through sales of compendia or in some other way. The financial benefits are due only to originator of the materials. It is important to observe that students at the University also have copyright protection of those works which they have themselves produced, such as for example answers to examination questions, degree project work etc. For lecturers to use the material in their own teaching requires in turn the approval of the students.

Updated 2018-01-29