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Citing references

A reference contains the necessary information about an original source so that it can be easily found again. There are different styles which use different standards to describe how references should appear in text and on a bibliography/works cited page.

Different subjects use different styles. Check with your lecturers if you are unsure which standard is recommended for your subject.

Interpreting Citations Tutorial

A web-based tutorial on how to write and interpret references.

Interpreting Citations Tutorial »external link (Thomas Jefferson Library, University of Missouri)


Common for many subject areas. References are written in the body of a text with author’s name and year in parentheses.

Guide to the Harvard System »external link (Deakin University)


Is used in history, law, theology and other sciences where many unpublished sources are used. The Oxford System uses footnotes placed either at the bottom of a page or at the end of a chapter.

Guide to the Oxford System »external link (Deakin University)


Used primarily in behavioral and social sciences. Based on The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. References are written in the body of the text with the author’s name and year in parentheses.

Guide to APA System »external link (University of Wisconsin)

APA Style Help »external link (American Psychological Association)

ICMJE (Vancouver Style)

ICMJE (Vancouver Style) stands for International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Read their guidelines "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals".

References via LIBRIS

LIBRISexternal link, the national library catalog, offers an easy way to create references. Choose to copy and past or save as a file for import to a reference management system.


Software used at HH for organizing references and format them automatically.

Read more about EndNote

For questions & to get started

Contact Anna Nistor

Updated 2018-05-24