China has taken a strong position as an electric car country and strives to further develop the electrification of transport systems. The Sweden-China Bridge project aims to contribute to increased understanding, information and knowledge sharing about technical and commercial development of electrification of vehicle systems, integrated transport system solutions, and infrastructure for energy supply as a fully integrated system with intelligent and smart cities.
2019, about 28 million electric cars had been sold in China. In the next few years, it is estimated that about 7 million electric cars will be sold annually. About 98% of the world's electric buses are already in China, and the country plans to establish 800,000 charging stations by 2020. China has taken a strong position as an electric car country, while at the same time taking rapid steps towards electrifying the systme of transportation. At the same time, there is often a lack of information on driving forces, objectives and details of this rapid change in the transport sector. In view of China's size, market dominance, rapid technological development and development of integrated system solutions, it is important to gain increased knowledge about this change in order to understandhow this could affect the development of sustainable electrified transport system solutions.
The project is exploratory in nature and includes a step-by-step approach to knowledge development. The project spans over different areas of knowledge and will highlight which technologies and systems are prioritized, what driving forces and motives exist, which actors are involved in the transition to electrification of integrated transport systems, and what conditions and business models are needed to achieve the conversion to electrifyied and integrated transport systems in a smart society.
In view of China's size, market dominance, rapid technological development and development of integrated system solutions, it is important to gain increased knowledge about this change in order to understandhow this could affect the development of sustainable electrified transport system solutions.
- The project aims to establish and develop an academic knowledge-sharing and -transfer platformbetween Sweden and China for collaboration between universities and research institutes in the two countries, in order to contribute to increased understanding and information and knowledge sharing on the technical and commercial development of electrified vehicle systems, integrated transport system solutions, and energy supply infrastructure as a fully integrated system of intelligent and smart cities.
- From this perspective, the project will explore the development and implementation of relevant technology for the electrification of vehicles, such as fuel cells, bioenergy, battery storage, combinations of energy systems for hybrid vehicles, energy supply for integrated electrified vehicles, integrated electric road technology, associated charging infrastructure, and static and dynamic technology.
- We also intend to explore the management of renewable energy supply systems, from the production of renewable electricity to its distribution to consumers of electrified transport systems, which is needed to ensure that electrified vehicles and transport systems can be supplied with the necessary electricity.
- How is technological development organized within and between Chinese universities, research institutes and industry to ensure that both technical development and commercialization of the technology take place in a synchronized way?
- How does academia collaborate with (a) integrated technology development and (b) urban and social development to ensure that technological development for electrification of vehicle systems is synchronized with the development of intelligent and smart cities?
- What is the basis for deciding (decision-making criteria) on the choice of different electric vehicle propulsion technologies, from personal cars to heavy vehicles, such as fuel cells, hybrid technology, battery drive, and various electric road solutions?
- How are future technology choices for the progress of the various electric vehicle systems viewed?
- How is the supply of electricity needed for the rapid development of electric vehicle systems ensured?
- How will business models be designed to enable the introduction of large-scale electric vehicle systems across China?
- Establish and develop an academic knowledge-sharing and transfer platform between Swedish and Chinese universities and research institutes.
- Describe the updated development of electrified transport system solutions integrated with ecosystem solutions for smart and intelligent cities in China, including both technology and business model development.
- Create a data-driven knowledge base for mutual learning between Sweden and China. Perform 2–3 case studies, 1–2 of which will be studied in depth to understand the development and implementation status of technical systems in China.
- Disseminate information on current cooperation and experience gained to relevant actors in Sweden, as well as create an infrastructure for future contacts, projects and other joint activities such as mutual workshops, seminars and international conferences.
- Make the Sweden-China platform known in both Sweden, China and in the western ERS community. Share knowledge & assess the potential for future research, collaborative projects and other joint activities between the Swedish and Chinese academies.
- Final report and finalizing the project.
Project research methods
- Literature reviews of national Chinese journals (both English and Chinese articles), university databases etc. to learn what the research can show regarding the central areas of the project that are in.
- Conduct in-depth interviews with key personnel from academia and companies to create an understanding of identified technologies and technical solutions for the electrification of vehicle systems.
- Identify key development projects and conduct 2–3 case studies to understand in more depth the “what, why, who and how” of technical and business solutions that are being developed and their interaction with intelligent and smart cities. These case studies will be identified in dialogue with the reference group for the project.
- Conduct workshops with key researchers and leading companies to map prerequisites for technology and business development.
- Identify particularly interesting development projects and carry out in-depth studies that enable a deeper knowledge of technological and business development to electrify vehicle systems. These will be identified in dialogue with the reference group in the project.
- Conduct collaborative workshops with representatives of different organizations, functions and organizational levels to explore and better understand topics of interest for this project.
- Observational studies with the universities and research institutes involved in R&D in the above areas.
- A knowledge platform for cooperation between key Swedish and Chinese academic and research institutes involved in the development of electric vehicle systems and their connections to the development of intelligent cities.
- Report on state-of-the art knowledge regarding the technological development of electric vehicle and transportation systems and the interaction between technological development and commercialization of electric vehicle systems from a societal development perspective.
- Descriptive and problematize articles presented at national and international conferences.
- 1-2 in-depth studies in selected special areas. The focus may be on heavy vehicle development, including buses and their technical design. In-depth studies provide insight and knowledge about the interaction between academia and industry in particularly interesting areas, such as various technical solutions for the electrification of both heavy and light vehicles, including the design of business models.
- Descriptions and analyses of business models – exploring and in-depth understanding the content of the development of business models for the electrification of vehicle systems and their integration into society.
- 2-3 case studies of interesting development projects concerning electrification of vehicle systems in China. The focus of the different case studies may vary. Some may focus on energy supply systems, such as fuel cells, hybrid technology, batteries, etc. Others may focus on the interaction between electric vehicle systems and smart cities. And some may focus on the development of new technical systems such as solar roads.
- Article analyses intended to be published in international journals.
- Literature summaries with reflections and analyses of the state of knowledge in China regarding technological, business and societal development for electric vehicle systems.
- Summary and analytical final report.
- Mike Danilovic, project leader, professor, Halmstad University, Sweden.
- Tomas Mülllern, professor, Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
- Jasmine Lihua Liu, (刘莉华), Ph.D., Senior researcher, Lund University and Affiliated researcher at MMTC, Jönköping University, International Business School, Sweden & Shanghai Dianji University, China.
- Arne Nåbo, tech. lic., research director, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
- Philip Almestrand Linné, PhD, researcher, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
- Jeanette Andersson, researcher, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
- Wang Junhua, professor, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
- Liu Shuo, assistant professor, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
- Qiu Xiaoping, professor, Southwest Jiatong University, Chengdu, China.
- Susan Lijiang Sun, project- joint manager, professor, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
- Ma Hongwei, associate professor, Shanghai Dianji University, China.
- Shanghai Powerkeeper, Shanghai, China
- Shanghai Jiulong Power, Shanghai, China
- Guoxun Yang, VD, Zhejiang VIE-Evatran Electronic Technologies Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China
- Liu Zhen, ingenjör, Shanghai, Urban and Rural Construction and Transportation Development Research Institute, China
- Scania China Innovation Center
- Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden